Understanding Snoring & Sleep Apnea: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Snoring is a common nighttime nuisance that affects millions of people worldwide. While occasional snoring may not be cause for concern, persistent snoring could be a sign of a more serious condition known as sleep apnea. In this article, we’ll delve into the symptoms, causes, potential outcomes of untreated sleep apnea, investigations, and treatment options, emphasizing the role of an Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) or sleep specialist in evaluation and management.


  1. Loud Snoring: Snoring is the primary symptom of sleep apnea, often characterized by loud, disruptive noises during sleep.

  2. Pauses in Breathing: Individuals with sleep apnea may experience pauses in breathing (apnea) or shallow breathing during sleep, followed by gasping or choking sounds.

  3. Daytime Fatigue: Due to disrupted sleep patterns, individuals with sleep apnea often experience excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.

  4. Morning Headaches: Waking up with headaches or a dry mouth can be indicative of sleep apnea.

  5. Irritability and Mood Changes: Sleep apnea can lead to irritability, mood swings, and decreased libido due to poor sleep quality.


  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): The most common type of sleep apnea, OSA occurs when the muscles in the throat relax excessively during sleep, leading to airway obstruction.

  2. Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): CSA results from a problem in the brain’s respiratory control center, causing the brain to fail to send proper signals to the muscles that control breathing.

  3. Risk Factors: Factors such as obesity, anatomical abnormalities in the nose or throat, family history of sleep apnea, smoking, alcohol consumption, and certain medications can increase the risk of developing sleep apnea.

Potential Outcomes if Not Treated:

  1. Daytime Impairment: Untreated sleep apnea can significantly impair daytime functioning, increasing the risk of accidents, poor performance at work or school, and decreased quality of life.

  2. Cardiovascular Complications: Sleep apnea is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, heart disease, stroke, and arrhythmias due to the strain it places on the cardiovascular system.

  3. Metabolic Disorders: Sleep apnea has been linked to metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.

  4. Neurocognitive Effects: Chronic sleep deprivation from untreated sleep apnea can lead to cognitive dysfunction, memory problems, and mood disorders like depression and anxiety.


  1. Nasendoscopy: An ENT specialist may perform a nasendoscopy to evaluate the nasal passages, throat, and airway for any anatomical abnormalities or obstructions that may contribute to snoring and sleep apnea.

  2. Allergy Evaluation: Allergies can exacerbate nasal congestion and inflammation, contributing to sleep-disordered breathing. An allergy evaluation may involve skin prick tests or blood tests to identify allergens.

  3. Sleep Study (Polysomnography): A sleep study is the gold standard for diagnosing sleep apnea. It involves monitoring various parameters during sleep, including breathing patterns, oxygen levels, heart rate, and brain activity.

Treatment Options:

  1. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Therapy: CPAP therapy involves wearing a mask over the nose and/or mouth during sleep, which delivers a continuous flow of air to keep the airway open.

  2. Oral Appliance Therapy: Custom-fitted oral appliances can help reposition the jaw and tongue to prevent airway obstruction in individuals with mild to moderate sleep apnea.

  3. Surgery: Surgical options, such as uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP), septoplasty, or nasal turbinate reduction, may be considered to correct anatomical abnormalities contributing to sleep apnea.

  4. Lifestyle Modifications: Weight loss, avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime, sleeping on your side, and practicing good sleep hygiene can all help reduce the severity of sleep apnea symptoms.

Evaluation by ENT/Sleep Specialist:

Consulting an ENT or sleep specialist is essential for accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment planning for snoring and sleep apnea. These specialists have expertise in evaluating the upper airway, conducting sleep studies, and recommending appropriate treatment options tailored to each individual’s needs.

In conclusion, snoring and sleep apnea are common sleep disorders that can have significant implications for health and well-being if left untreated. By recognizing the symptoms, understanding the causes, undergoing appropriate investigations, and seeking evaluation by an ENT or sleep specialist, individuals can effectively manage their condition and improve their quality of life.

Pang Xin Yi
Pang Xin Yi
I consult Dr Pang for various issues - from nose bleed to chronic hives to ear block. He is always very thorough in his work. Dr Pang is very easy to talk to, and always tries to understand not just your condition, but your medical history and the environment you live and work in. He asked thorough questions about my medical and lifestyle history, carried out allergen tests to narrow down possible causes and gave very detailed advice on how to manage my hives condition. Appointment times are also adhered to (give and take 10-15min allowance which I find totally acceptable). Dr Pang also shares treatment options openly but always left it to my own discretion to pick the one I am most comfortable with. I also appreciate his staff for always being friendly and patient, and giving clear instructions when I had tests to take. It’s hard to find a clinic these days where you could have a comfortable and relaxed visit so I am glad that I found them.
Vijesh Kishore
Vijesh Kishore
Dr. Pang Yoke Teen with his pleasing personality and quick diagnosis and great advise thinking always the best for the patient . One of the few doctors who believe in giving less medicines the minimal required and the clinic staff is very helpful, efficient and caring and accommodative
Oriana De Saint Priest
Oriana De Saint Priest
I had a very good experience with Dr Pang YT and can highly recommend him for his professionalism
Poh Wee Koon
Poh Wee Koon
Been visiting Dr Pang for allergy-related issues for a year and counting. The service is always prompt and friendly, and treatment as well as symptom management has been great. Appointments are not too hard to get, and picking up of medication is easy too. All good and a nice, friendly place to seek help at.
Stefan Andersson
Stefan Andersson
I’ve had a very good experience at Dr Pang’s clinic. I had concerns around sleep apnea and Dr Pang identified that I was suffering from a lot of different allergies and food sensitivities. Now I’m getting treated for some of these allergies and it has improved my life quality a lot which I’m so grateful for. Him and his team of nurses are also super friendly and down to earth so it’s always a nice experience visiting the clinic as well! Highly recommended.
Elizabeth Lee
Elizabeth Lee
First visit to Dr Pang was almost 10 years ago where he treated my extremely severe allergic rhinitis. My allergies were so bad that I would get attacks triggered every single day in normal environments. Ever since the treatment I have probably only experienced allergy attacks less than 5 times in the past 10 years, and those times I can pinpoint were in dusty conditions. Thank you Dr Pang for changing my life for the better!! Will always be grateful to you and your clinic :)
Aditi Mann
Aditi Mann
Thank you Dr Pang Yoke Teen for helping me to cope with my allergies! I went to Dr Pang after suffering from severe allergies for several years. My nose congestion and eye irritation would completely ruin my quality of life. At the first consultation Dr Pang was able to diagnose the problem and prescribed the necessary medication. I started to feel better after taking the medication for just a couple of days. I have been under Dr Pang’s care for more than 6 months now and I have almost forgotten what it is to have an allergy! A special mention for Sheila and the other staff who also make the experience to the clinic an easy and comfortable one - thank you too!
Shao Wei Tan
Shao Wei Tan
I’ve had a sensitive nose and sinus issues since childhood. After consulting Dr Pang, I went for a surgery and on a course of immunotherapy. It just works — I almost never get runny / blocked nose anymore unless I’m actually sick!
Derrick Tan
Derrick Tan
Had issues with allergies for a really long time and Dr Pang came up with an effective treatment plan which includes immunotherapy. Feeling better now

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